The first battle of Bull Run, or Manassas as referred to by the Confederate Army, was the first land battle of the Civil War on July 21, 1861. It was deemed a Confederate victory and set the stage for battles to come. With nearly equal forces of 35,732 Union soldiers and about 34,000 Confederate soldiers, and only about 18,000 committed on either side. The heat of midsummer weather, combined with haphazard tactics and unskilled soldiers proved a burden to both sides. The Union was driven back by late afternoon and eventually retreated, leaving weaponry behind and allowing hundreds to be captured as civilian onlookers picnicked nearby and watched the battle unfold. By the end of the day, 2,708 Union soldiers were killed, wounded, or missing and the Confederate Army suffered 1,982 killed, wounded or missing.